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This type of death was considered as a humane method of execution. Umbrella-like cluster of flowers, Water Hemlock. Leaves of Water Hemlock. Back to list Wild parsnip; biennial; introduced from Europe; also known as Yellow parsnip and panais. Carrot Or Parsley Family Umbelliferae. Yellow, umbrella cluster; June to August.

Alternate, compound, lance-shaped; strongly toothed; divided into 3 to 7 pairs. Strongly ridged; erect; hollow. Prefers standing or running water. It occurs along roadsides, in meadows, fence rows and abandoned fields. The plant juices contain furocoumarins which can cause severe skin photodermatitis in some individuals after exposure to sunlight.

Wild parsnip flower on the side of an old road. Wild parsnip plant growing on a limestone beach. Back to list Water Parsnip. White; numerous clusters of very small mm wide white flowers; in flat-topped, cm wide clusters or umbels at tips of stems; August - September. Alternate, once divided with toothed leaflets; leaflets are cm long. Up to 2 m tall. Marshes, swamps, and ditches and along lakeshores, rivers, and streams.

Often the plant occurs in the water. Water parsnip is very similar to water hemlocks, which are very poisonous. Water hemlock has twice-divided leaves. Other source of information: Back to list Flower head of Water Parsnip. Back to list Cow Parsnip. White; numerous clusters of white flowers; flowers up to 1. Asymmetrical notched petals, sometimes tinged with purple; 3 segments; cm wide, lobed and toothed; inflated sheath at base of stalk; entire leaf may be up to 50 cm wide. Grooved, woolly, and hollow.

Moist places, such as ditches, edges of lakes or rivers. This is one of the largest umbellifers - up to 3 m tall. Cow parsnip - note inflated sheath at the base of the stalk. Cow parsnip plant and flower. Cow parsnip seed head. More information about the poisonous nature of Marsh Marigold: Bright yellow; petal-like sepals and no petals; clusters; look like buttercup; April-June. Glossy, rounded to heart-shaped; up to 15 cm wide, alternate, stalked; glossy, dark green colour..

Flowering stems are hollow, grooved, and succulent. Wet areas, such as creeks, swamps, wet meadows, and bogs, generally in, or beside, running water. The genus name, Caltha, is derived from the Greek word for "cup" calathos , which describes the flowers as they open and palustris is from Latin word meaning "of the marsh". This is one of the early spring wildflowers.

All parts of the plant are toxic to humans when raw due to the presence of a volatile yellow oil. Because the plant is so irritating, cattle avoid it. The 5 to 9 petal-like petals are not petals. They are sepals that look like petals. After flowering, the leaves die back and the plant becomes dormant.

This plant grows in both Canada and Europe, suggesting that the Arctic regions were once joined. The word Caltha is derived from the Greek word meaning chalice or cup. The yellow flowers are cup-shaped. The name marigold is supposed to denote pain or chagrin.

Typical marsh marigold habitat - a low, wet area where water is flowing or the soil is saturated. Back to list Blue flag or wild iris. Blue-violet with darker veins and yellow-green and white colouring towards base of flower, cm wide; 3 sepals spread horizontally with 3 petal-like styles standing over them; 3 petals, narrower than sepals stand erect; May-July.

Basal are stalkless, sword-like, cm long, up to 3 cm wide. Thick, coarse stem bears leaves and flower. Moist to wet areas, such as the edges of lakes, beaver ponds, and wet meadows. Blue flag is also know as liver lily. However, the roots are reported to be extremely poisonous. The alternate name, fleur-de-lis, is a corruption of the literal translation "flower of Louis".

The iris is the rainbow of the Earth. Iris was goddess of the rainbow and messenger of the gods in the Iliad. That is why the flower, iris, is associated with tidings or messages and good news. The flower name is fitting, given the range of colours displayed by the iris. The name versicolor means "of varied colours".

Both the generic and specific names express the variable colour of the wild iris. Iris means "Glad tidings", "Message" or "I have a message for you". Bull Bay First Nation Date: Blue flag leaves growing at the edge of a lake. Cluster of blue flag flowers and leaves. Purple to pink; flat-topped clusters cm wide; up to 22 flower heads; disc florets, no ray flowers; August - September. Whorls that are lance-shaped, cm long, cm wide; 1 central main vein, toothed; whorls of 3 to 7; have vanilla-like sent.

Spotted with purple or solid purple tinge; hollow. Moist woods, along streams, alvars, beaver dams, edges of lakes, low areas. The common name reportedly comes from an American Indian named Joe Pye who used the plant to cure typhus fever. Also known as gravelroot or Queen of the meadow. Joe Pye weed flower and. High Falls, Thunder Bay Date: Joe Pye weed whorls of leaves.

Back to list Spotted Joe-Pye weed stem - note the purple or dark red spots along the stem. Back to list Purple loosestrife Alien.

Spike of purple-pink flowers; cm wide; petals, wrinkled, many stamens, June-September. Opposite or whorled, unstalked; may be in pairs or in threes and fours; cm long; lanceolate to linear; lower leaves clasp stem.

Wet places such as ditches, wet meadows, marshes, edges of lakes and rivers. An alien that was introduced from Europe. It is an aggressive species. Back to list Purple loosestrife flower spike. Back to list Turtlehead; perennial; also known as Snakehead, Balmony. White, lavender-tinged or pinkish; tight terminal clusters; tubular, 2-lipped flowers; 2. Erect, branched, smooth, stiff with ascending branches. In swamps, wet meadows, along streams or rivers.

The flower has two a two-lipped corolla that resembles the head of a turtle, with its mouth closed. Not common in the Sudbury area.

White Turtlehead flower head just starting to bloom. Wanapitei River, McVittie Hydro dam. White Turtlehead plant just starting to bloom. Lanceolate, tapering at both ends; may be covered with minute translucent hairs; up to 35 cm long and ranging from 3 - 10 cm wide; leaf bases rounded, truncate, or tapered; leaf stalks cm long.

Erect to spreading stems; lower stems typically root at the nodes. Edges of ponds, shallow lakes, marshes, and streams, wet fields, areas subject to seasonal flooding, ditches; typically grow in wet to moist soils, but tolerate periods of dryness; the terrestrial plants grow best in disturbed places with fertile soils and minimal competition, such as beaver dams. Terrestrial and aquatic varieties are reported to intergrade.

Some appear to convert from one variety to the other to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Back to list Another form of terrestrial swamp smartweed, growing on the muddy top of a beaver dam. Opposite, short-stalked,m simple, oblong to lance-shaped with pointed tip; heart-shaped to rounded base; cm long; toothed upper leaves may be toothless.

Flowering stems, square, branched. Wet meadows and near rivers or lakes. Member of the mint family, but it does NOT have the minty flavour. The name Mad-dog weed reflects the use of skullcap in medieval times as a remedy for rabid-dog bites. Back to list Marsh skullcap flower. Back to list Square-stemmed monkey flower. Violet, lilac, occasionally white; tubular, 2-lipped, cm long; upper lip erect and is bent back; lower lip is 3-lobed and appears as three lips; July - August.

Opposite; toothed, oblong to lance-shaped, cm long, cm wide, pointed tip; stalkless. Grows on the sides of ditches, rivers, marshes, lakes, and beaver ponds.

The flower resembles the face of a grinning monkey. The word mimulus is Latin for "a little buffoon" and ringens is Latin for "showing the teeth". Back to list Detail of square -stemmed monkey flower. Back to list Swamp candles; perennial; also known as Yellow loosestrife, Earth loosestrife; Dry land loosestrife. Yellow; tall, narrow inflorescence of small flowers; 2 red spots at the base of each petal; Opposite; lanceolate; sharp-pointed at both ends; small reddish bulblets often present in axils after flowering.

Erect; bears terminal spike-like cluster of flowers; may reach up to 1 m tall. Grows on the sides of rivers, marshes, lakes, and beaver ponds and in wet meadows. Flowers in the genus Lysimachia have no nectar. Swamp candles flower detail. Swamp candles flower leaves. Back to list Pale St. Johnswort; perennial; also known as Elliptic-leaved St.

Johnswort, Pale Saint John's-wort. Yellow; few or several in terminal branched stems or cymes; each flower about 0. Opposite; oval or elliptic, 2 cm long, 0. Herbaceous, slightly 4-sided, mainly simple or with a few branches, erect. Grows on moist ground, such as the sides of rivers, marshes, lakes, and beaver ponds. The name " Hypericum " comes from the ancient Greek name derived from hyper, "above," and ikons, "picture," from the practice of placing flowers above an image in the house to ward off evil spirits at the midsummer festival, which became the feast of St.

Back to list Creeping Spearwort; native perennial; also known as Creeping Buttercup, Acrid Crowfoot, Spearwort Buttercup, Flam Buttercup; a very common narrow-leaved buttercup that grows in wet meadows and pasture, fens, swamps, lake edges, canals and river banks.

Yellow; 4 to 7 petals; flower is 3 mm wide; July-August. More or less prostrate, rooting at the nodes and creeping. The plant grows in sandy, loamy and heavy clay-rich acid, neutral and basic soils. It can grow in semi-shade and full sun, but it must have moist or wet soil. All parts of the plant are poisonous. The plant also has a strongly acrid juice that can cause blistering to the skin. Back to list Creeping Spearwort plant - each flower head is about 3 mm across.

Back to list Purple Gerardia; annual; slender, wiry, branched plants; member of snapdragon family. Purple, pink, or rarely white bell-shaped flowers; 2. Narrow; 3 mm wide and up to 4 cm long; lance-shaped; opposite. Slender, branched, smooth; upward spreading branches.

Back to list Purple Gerardia flower detail. Back to list Kidneyleaf buttercup;. Yellow; inconspicuous, drooping sepals, 6 mm wide; 5 sepals; petals shorter and narrower than sepals; April-August.

Kidney-shaped basal leaves, cm wide; stalked with scalloped margins; stem leaves are stalkless; divided into 3 - 5 lobes that are incised. Moist areas that may be shaded. This does not look like a buttercup, because we are familiar with the larger flowers of the more familiar Tall Buttercup. Paddy Creek Trail Date: Back to list Kidneyleaf buttercup flower detail and developing seed head.

Back to list Tall meadow rue; also known as Muskrat Weed; perennial. White; no petals; white sepals that are 2 - 3. Alternate, compound, bluish- to olive-green colour; divided into 3's or 3-lobed and leaflets are rounded to oblong; cm wide and about 3 cm long.

Wet areas such as lake edges, ditches, wet forest edges, river edges. The nickname Muskrat Weed reflects the presence of this plant along pond edges and rivers where muskrat frequent. Some members of the genus contain thalictrine, which is considered to be a strong cardiac poison.

Tall meadow-rue plant, about 1. Upon winning points, the top card is moved to reveal the appropriate number of suit symbols on the bottom card. After all points are revealed on the lower card, the top card is flipped over, showing pips on both cards to indicate the score.

A variation of score keeping in Western New York and Ontario involves using the twos and threes of the same suit. Scoring starts with counting the symbols on the cards, for points 1 to 4; at 5, the cards are turned over and crossed. Crossing the cards indicates 5 points. Points 6 to 9 are counted similarly by counting the number of suit symbols showing and adding them to the 5, if cards are crossed.

In Canada and Michigan, it is common for each team to use two 5s of the same colour to keep score, making one team red and the other black. The 5s are usually referred to as counting cards in this situation. The explanation for why a visual score is kept is due to euchre traditionally being a game played late at night or by people who have been drinking, which is also shown by cheating and stealing the deal not being discouraged.

When placing bets on a euchre game, betting takes place after the trump is determined, and before the first card is played on that trick. Betting can start with an ante or forced bet. The defenders can either check on the bid and bid nothing, thereby likely losing their ante, call the bid, or if they feel confident that they can euchre - raise the bid. Once a bet has been settled by a call on the bid, the trick plays out, with the winners of the bet adding that bet to their pot.

After the game has been won, the winning team then splits the pot between the two winners and the game can end there, or variants can be played over multiple games. Betting in euchre can also be done on a per trick basis or a per point basis.

At the end of the game, the losing team owes the winning team the difference in points based on the monetary value set per point. Communicating with one's partner to influence their play, called table talk or cross-boarding, is considered cheating, which should be emphasized to new players. This can include code words, secret gestures, or other forms of cooperative play in which one player can inform his partner what he holds in his hand or what the partner should play in a trick or call when choosing trump.

Depending on house rules, table talk can result in replaying of a hand or awarding of a point to the team calling out the infraction. Some variations allow or at least accept the inevitability of the minor non-verbal communication in that a player may hesitate before passing on trump selection to signal to his partner that his cards are helpful to the offered trump, but are not sufficient to guarantee a win.

Conversely, the player may pass quickly or blatantly to indicate their cards are very poor for the available trump choice possibly indicating their partner should go alone if they select that trump.

This adds an additional element of strategy in that players may bluff a quick pass or hesitation to trick their opponents into calling or declining the offered trump; however, this can naturally backfire by confusing the player's own teammate. Depending on the play group, couples or good friends may be purposely split onto opposing teams because of the perceived advantage they may have reading one another as teammates. If a player does not follow suit when he is able to usually by playing a trump card instead , it is considered a renege and cheating, and the opposing team is rewarded two points if it is caught in later tricks of the same hand.

In some variants reneging when a player or his opponent is going alone may result in a penalty of four points in order to equalize the potential values of a hand. Players caught repeatedly reneging on purpose are often ostracized from future card playing events.

The four point penalty for reneging should apply equally for the maker of trump and the opposing team. Euchre is a game with a large number of variant versions. They include versions for two to nine players, as well as changes in cards used, bidding, play, and scoring.

After the first round once the kitty's top card has been turned down , "No trump" may be called. The first card played for each trick establishes that trick's suit, with normal deck order ace high taking precedence. The dealer must call trump at the end of the second round and is unable to declare a misdeal.

This variation is often used to keep the game moving quickly. A player having a hand with at least three 9 or 10 cards of any suit, can exchange three of these cards with the three unknown cards in the kitty. This must be performed before trump has been selected.

Another variant of the "farmer's hand" rules states that if a player receives all nines and tens, they may call for a redeal. The dealer may not exercise this option because they pick up the card from the kitty. In some variations a player may not call trump solely with a Jack and must have another card of the same suit if they wish to call it, sometimes this only applies to the dealer. If a player is caught doing this it is often treated as a renege. When a team wins all five tricks normally or via alone hand , they may choose to reduce the opposing team's score by 2 or 4, respectively instead of adding to their own score.

Additionally, if the dealer turns up a Jack on the kitty, they may elect to go alone without seeing the rest of their hand. If all tricks are won via this "blind loner" hand, 5 points are awarded instead of the usual 4, but a failure to win all tricks earns the defenders 1 point.

This rule set was named for 4-time Northern Michigan regional tournament runner-up champion James Robson. No ace no face no trump: If a player is dealt a hand which once trump is called contains no aces, face cards, or the suit which is trump they may reveal their hand before cards have been played stating no ace no face no trump and all players must throw their cards in and the hand is re-dealt.

Three-Handed Euchre Euchre for three players: Three-Handed Euchre is played like 24 - card Euchre, with the following changes:. Many of these variations are specific to a particular region.

In Australia and New Zealand, playing to 11 rather than 10 points is common. In south western England, Cornwall and Guernsey, variations with a joker as highest trump are played. In Ontario and parts of New Zealand and in the British and Australian version of the game, after the dealer turns up the top card on the kitty if the first player to the left passes and the dealer's partner would like to order up the dealer, the dealer's partner must play alone.

Euchre terminology varies greatly from region to region, and is highly colloquial. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

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